Identify the four postulates of natural selection.
A: Individuals in a population vary in the traits they possess.
B: Some trait differences are heritable.
C: Individuals with certain traits are more likely to survive and reproduce.
D: Individuals in a population all possess the same traits.
E: Survival and reproductive success are variable among individuals in a population.
F: All individuals in a population have equal reproductive success.
The correct answer includes the options; B, C, D and E.
The four postulates of natural selection are;
- Some trait differences are heritable.
- Survival and reproductive success are variable among individuals in a population.
- Individuals in a population vary in the traits they possess.
- Individuals with certain traits are more likely to survive and reproduce.
Natural selection is the process of selection of those organisms that are best adapted to the environment. The increase in frequency occurs relative to less well-adapted genotypes over several generations.
It is the non-random reproduction of different genotypes that aim to preserve the most favourable variants. With the selection of desirable variants, less favourable variants are eliminated. It is viewed as the creative force that preserves the best traits needed for the natural competition.
There are four conditions that are needed for natural selection. These are;
- variation in fitness or organisms
- Variation in individual characters among members of the population.
Reproduction is the process of producing offspring. The reproduction process is necessary for evolution because otherwise, generation traits will stop. In reproduction, a parent cell produces offspring which are required for natural selection.
The process of transmission of specific traits from parent organisms to offspring is called heredity.
Heredity is also necessary for evolution so that the best traits should be available for natural selection.
Variation in the fitness of organisms:
Variation in the fitness of organisms is necessary for natural selection because some organisms have a heritable character. Individuals in the population with some traits must be fit to reproduce. Organisms in a population vary in reproductive success.
variation among different members of a population:
Variation in various members of the same population is required for natural selection. Natural selection will automatically occur when organisms with variants characters met together.