What name is given to the process by which water crosses a selectively permeable membrane?
B: Passive transport
The correct answer is option D.
Osmosis is the process by which water crosses a selectively permeable membrane
Osmosis is a type of diffusion in which water diffuses across a selectively permeable membrane. In the process of diffusion, molecules move from high-density areas to low-density areas in a cell. So, when a substance move across a semipermeable membrane to balance the concentration of another substance is called osmosis.
Osmosis occurs in cells when water flows into or out of a cell. This movement of water molecules depends on the concentration of other solutes in a cell, such as salt. It is a spontaneous process, and it occurs in a cell without using any kind of energy.
Osmosis has different effects on animals and plant cells because they have different concentrations of water molecules. In a hypotonic solution, an animal cell will burst open because water concentration is maximum in there. However, plant cells will not break because they have very thick cell walls, and they also need more water than animal cells.
In a hypertonic solution, in both animal and plant cells, water will rush out. This is why snails and slugs die when salt is sprinkled onto them. They die because water molecules leave their cells to balance the higher concentration of salt outside the cells.